Organizational Development and Effectiveness
Introduction to OD & E
OD & E Focus:
1. Individual-Focused Interventions: These are OD interventions that are targeted at individuals and include but are not limited to; skill training, job design and redesign, role negotiation and carrier planning.
- Sensitivity Training: Also called T-group training, sensitivity training is designed to help individuals understand how their behavior affects others within a team.
- Skill Training: Skill training refers to increasing the job knowledge, skills and abilities that are necessary to do a job effectively. Skill training is imparted’ on the job. The need for imparting skill training is aroused due to the rapid changes that an organisations face.
- Career Planning: This training involves activities geared at individuals to identify strength, weaknesses, specific goals that they would like to occupy. Career planning activities benefit both individuals and organisations. Sessions further guide employees to identify their skills as well as deficiencies in their skills.
- Management Development Training: Management development encompasses a host of techniques designed to enhance a managers’ or team leaders’ skills on the job. Training for management development generally focuses on five types of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, attitudes, leadership and development.
2. Organisation and Group-Focused Interventions: These are OD intervention methods aimed at changing the organisation itself or changing the work-groups within the organisations and include survey feedback, management by objectives, quality of work life, team building, and process consultation.
- Management by Objectives (MBO): Management by objectives (MBO) involves joint goal setting between employees and managers. The MBO process includes the setting of initial objectives, periodic progress reviews, and problem solving to remove any obstacles to goal achievement. All these steps are joint efforts between managers and employees.
- Quality of Work Life (QWL): QWL as an umbrella concept encompasses literally dozens of specific interventions that have a common goal of humanizing the workplace focusing on activities such as open communication, equitable reward systems, a concern for employee-job security and participation in job design.
- Team Building: Team building as an OD intervention is designed to improve the effectiveness of a working group/team. This activity usually begins with defining individual then group goals and priorities and subsequently, how these two sets of goals link and inform the goals and objectives of the organization as a whole. Following four areas in team building are critical to the success of the interventions:
- Team building should develop effective communication between the members.
- Team building should encourage members’ interaction and also mutual interdependence.
- Team building should emphasize on focus and attainment of team goals.
- Team building should stress on the need for flexibility and exemplify the core need for effective and concerted teamwork.
3. Foundational documents, systems and structures The core objective of this approach is to enable the organization adopting better to ever changing trends, demands and dynamics of its internal and external environment, markets, technologies and client needs and priorities. OD interventions related to these include but not limited to;
- Organizational Governance
- Formulating Strategic Planning Frameworks
- Operatioalizating and Management of Finances
- Managing People
- Effectively Managing Projects and Programs
- Effecting professional prectices in Office Administration and Management
- Branding, Communication and Publicity
- Actualizing Organizations’ Theory of Change